Grave Ornaments Online

John Doe

Doetown, Co, Doe
Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.gtreshrehrBeginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.Beginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.greshgergreBeginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program’s launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower counseled more deliberate measures. The result was a consensus that the White House forged among key interest groups, including scientists committed to basic research; the Pentagon which had to match the Soviet military achievement; corporate America looking for new business; and a strong new trend in public opinion looking up to space exploration.[15]

On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a “Special Committee on Space Technology,” headed by Guyford Stever.[9] On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published “A National Research Program for Space Technology,” stating,[16]

It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge [Sputnik] be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space … It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency … NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology.[16]

While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[17]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100 million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[18] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[19] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[18] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[20] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[18]

Insignia
Main article: NASA insignia
The NASA seal was approved by Eisenhower in 1959, and slightly modified by President John F. Kennedy in 1961.[21][22] NASA’s first logo was designed by the head of Lewis’ Research Reports Division, James Modarelli, as a simplification of the 1959 seal.[23] In 1975, the original logo was first dubbed “the meatball” to distinguish it from the newly designed “worm” logo which replaced it. The “meatball” returned to official use in 1992.[23] The “worm” was brought out of retirement by administrator Jim Bridenstine in 2020.[24]

Strategic plan
Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[25]

Extend and sustain human activities across the Solar System
Expand scientific understanding of the Earth and the universe
Create innovative new space technologies
Advance aeronautics research
Enable program and institutional capabilities to conduct NASA’s aeronautics and space activities
Share NASA with the public, educators, and students to provide opportunities to participate
Leadership
Main article: List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA

Administrator Bill Nelson
The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, and provides overall guidance and direction.[26] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be US citizens.[27] NASA’s administrator is nominated by the President of the United States subject to the approval of the US Senate,[28] and serves at the President’s pleasure as a senior space science advisor. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, appointed by President Joe Biden, since May 3, 2021.

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term (1958-1961) he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[29]

The third administrator, James E. Webb (1961–1968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center. Capitalizing on Kennedy’s legacy, President Lyndon Johnson kept continuity with the Apollo program by keeping Webb on when he succeeded Kennedy in November 1963. But Webb resigned in October 1968 before Apollo achieved its goal.


Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
James C. Fletcher supervised early planning of the Space Shuttle program during his first term as administrator under President Nixon.[30] He was appointed for a second term as administrator from May 1986 through April 1989 by President Ronald Reagan to help the agency recover from the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[31]

Three former astronauts served as NASA administrators: Charles Bolden, (2009-2017);[32] Richard H. Truly (1989-1992); and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, a new administrator is frequently chosen when the Presidency changes to or from the (Democratic or Republican) political party. Notable exceptions to this have been:

Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970.[33]
Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.grdegsr

“John Doe Memories”

  1. John Loved carsBeginning in 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) began experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet space program's launch of the world's first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned

    Location: Doetown

    Memorial Date: 2004/03/03


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